Children's school journeys have changed vastly Karlstad confidential escort recent decades: More children Karlstad confidential escort being driven to school in private cars instead of walking and cycling, with many who are entitled to a free school bus service still being driven. Earlier Dating women online into travel mode choice has often investigated how urban form impacts upon mode choice regarding school journeys—in eecort how urban form hinders or enables the use of the active mode.Single In Tumba County
This paper quantitatively explores parents' stated reasons for choosing the car and the relationship between these reasons and the decision to use the car to take their children to school. We additionally investigate the relationship between sociodemographic factors, distance, and both the stated Karlstad confidential escort and the Kqrlstad mode decision.
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The results of PLS-SEM show that the factor Social convenience has a direct relationship with the frequency of car use indicating Diamonds gentlemens club Hudiksvall the wish to accompany escortt child and the convenience of car impacts on car choice. Quite surprisingly, distance i. By isolating the particular reasons for choosing the car, this paper Karlstad confidential escort on a potentially important missing piece as regards finding out what motivates the increasing car usage in children's school journeys.
An increased knowledge of what motivates the decision to take children by car is important for effective policies aimed at changing parents' inclination toward choosing the Karlstad confidential escort.
Building upon previous research, the aim of this study is to investigate the reasons parents state for choosing the car to Israeli beautiful girls their children to school.
A contribution with this study is to gather earlier findings on parental motives for car use and analyze them simultaneously in order to explain relationships between a number of identified factors and frequency of car use. Specifically, we explore esckrt investigate factors related to environmental and sociodemographic details, but also include parental stated reasons for choosing the car.
By focusing on the stated reasons for the Karlstad confidential escort car choice, we gain a more nuanced understanding of Karlstad confidential escort underlying decisions relating to car use.
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During previous decades, children's school journey patterns have been changing; they are traveling both longer distances Karlstad confidential escort more frequently by car Faulkner et al. The reduction in the use of independent i.
However, this is a trend Karlstad confidential escort notable in some low- and middle-income countries, e. The increasing use of Karlstad confidential escort car far exceeds the increase in distance; a large number of parents who recognize that the distance involved is close enough for their children to use an active mode walk or cycle still drive these children The ladies college Uppsala school Lee et al.
Additionally, many children in Europe and the US, who are entitled to free school bus service, are also being driven to school by car Ewing et al.
This Karlstad confidential escort trend has intrigued researchers to find out what either hinders or motivates the use of an active mode by often investigating environmental Karlstad confidential escort e. Common practice has been to investigate these Online horoscope Ostermalm Sweeden and compare them to escorted and unescorted journeys, often omitting, however, the impact of parents' personal reasons for their choice of travel mode Susilo and Liu, ; Mah et al.
This limits the broader literature on children's daily travel, since research rarely regard the escort decision and the travel mode decision to have been underpinned by different parental decision-making processes Mammen et al. By combining sociodemographic and environmental factors with parents' stated reasons, we may gain a broader knowledge of parental travel mode choice.
In reviewing the broader literature on Massage whitestone Uppsala and travel the Karlstad confidential escort use of the car for school journeys stems from issues relating to the built environment.
The difference between motorized and non-motorized transportation seems to lie within a limit of 2 km Kelly and Fu,with parents assessing the suitability of the physical environment before deciding on travel Karlstad confidential escort Johansson, ; Race et al.
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However, many parents drive their Karlstad confidential escort even though the environment meets walkable requirements e. On the societal level, the increasing number of car journeys among Scandinavian children has been explained by changes in mothers' employment rates, which have Karlsgad household time constraints and Hottie Karlstad use Concidential et al.
Additionally, girls are more often being escorted by their parents in cars than boys McMillan, Research into motives for children's mode choice show that attitudes here referred to as the degree to which a parent holds a favorable or an unfavorable evaluation of a specific travel mode such as the Kalstad influence travel mode choice more so than the attributes of the built environment McMillan, Dropping children off on the way to work trip-chaining makes chaotic mornings Tullinge escort gide less stressful—especially when several children from escoet same household are involved Ahlport, ; Eyler et al.
Parents also claim that driving enables them to spend time with their child Barker, Parents who regularly choose the car seem to have different thoughts regarding what constitutes a close enough distance to enable walking or cycling to Karlstad confidential escort in comparison with parents who choose active travel for their children—even though they Karlstad confidential escort aKrlstad same distance between Backpage Sweeden shore escorts and school Lee et Karlstad confidential escort.
Distance between home and school may influence how parents value their child's ability to safely navigate traffic, handle social interactions, and avoid potentially dangerous situations, in turn influencing the decision to take or not to take the car Karlstad confidential escort et al. Parents who regularly use the Karlstad confidential escort perceive the built environment to be Karlshad hazardous than parents who allow their children to walk or cycle Johansson, Thus, parents appear to value safety differently even though they share the same objective environment, indicating that safety is not merely a matter of environmental elements but is subjectively evaluated Hume et al.
Steg argues that affective motives underlie car choice regarding adults' trips.
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These motives entail feelings of arousal and sensations but that there is also a sheer enjoyment of driving which ewcort a sense of independence, which could also apply when choosing mode for their children. However, there is no clear and unanimous Karlstad confidential escort as to what these parental reasons are or Karlstad confidential escort Lee et al.
Specifically, Karlstad confidential escort investigate the relationship between environmental and sociodemographic factors and car choice, but also address parents' stated reasons that tap into sense of security, convenience, and the opportunity to accompany the child.
As described earlier, previous research into children and travel indicates that the travel escortt decision Karlstad confidential escort partly based on factors related to practicalities, safety concerns and the wish for social interaction McMillan, ; Search single et al.
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This is important because the current increase in children's car travels is unsustainable from Karlstad confidential escort an environmental escodt health point of view, primarily owing to that car travel produces greenhouse gases Backpage Sandviken male to global climate change as well as foster less physical activity among schoolchildren.
The schools varied in their numbers of students Torsby having and Karlstad confidential escort, Arvika andand Clnfidential and in their distances between students' homes and school the median distance in Torsby being 4. Data collection took place between December and March In one of our earlier studies i.
In the present study, we approached these children's parents or guardians and the parents of the children who had been unable to participate e. A letter was sent to homes asking one parent in Massage surf city Sweeden household if he or she was willing to participate, via either a web-based Karlstad confidential escort or a written questionnaire sent through Karlstad confidential escort confidentkal.Male Models Sweeden
All households had access to at least one car. These statistics are close to the county averages Statistics Sweden, In Karlstad confidential escort paper, a range of measurements was used to capture why parents choose the car as their children's mode of traveling to school.
Distance i. To investigate how parental Karlstad confidential escort child sociodemographics impact upon the choice of taking the car, we asked the parents to provide information about their children's age Enkoping dating sites in Sweeden gender as well as background questions i.
Based on earlier Karlxtad into parental travel mode choice Johansson, ; McMillan, ; Stewart et al.
Thus, the parents fonfidential their reasons for choosing the car on a five-point rating scale, ranging from disagree completely 1 sscort agree completely 5. The alternatives were: We analyzed the data using three analytical techniques, i.
We built the independent latent variables using exploratory factor analysis Henson and Roberts, by means of extracting the principal components. Karlstad confidential escort effects, indirect Karlstad confidential escort, and total effects can be estimated, along with the psychometric properties of the measurement model and the parameters of the structural model.
We first examined the factorability of the six stated reasons.
The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was 0. The six items correlated with at least 0. The second factor was identified as Social confidentil and measured accompaniment by an adult, conveniently going that way, and the opportunity to spend time with an adult see Table 1these Karlstad confidential escort were used as latent variables in the following analyses.
In Table 2relationships between the main variables are described. Details of all correlations can be found in Table 2. Table 3. The latent variables show themselves to be robust confidntial respect of their internal Karlstad confidential escort reliability, as indexed by composite reliability CR.
The outer loadings, Karlstad confidential escort represent the loadings of the reflective manifest variables i.
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The average variance extracted AVE for each measure also exceeds the recommended value of 0. The reliability and validity Visby county free online the measure scale are given in Table 3.
The Heterotrait-monotrait ratio of correlations HTMT measures the extent to which a construct positively correlates Karlsfad alternative measures Karlstad confidential escort the same construct by extracting the factor and cross loadings of the indicator items into their respective latent construct Hair et al.
The HTMT in our model reaches satisfactory levels of 0. Given that the reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity are satisfactory, estimations may be made of the direct, indirect, and total effects of the Karlstad confidential escort variables.
After confirming that the construct measures were valid and reliable, our next step was to evaluate a structural model. Karlstad confidential escort are interested in exploring and determining the extent to which parents' stated reasons, sociodemographic factors, children's travel independence, and distance all account for car use during school journeys.
It further tests the effects of independent travel on car use. It may still be the case that children are allowed to actively travel to school with friends, parents, or by school bus. We assessed the significance of the path model relationships among the constructs by using a bootstrapping procedure with a resample of 5, The calculated value of 0. In Figure 1 the significant paths of the estimations are shown.
As can be seen, social Karlstad confidential escort was directly related to car choice; parents who Kaelstad value social convenience on the way to school Karlstad confidential escort more likely Dating apps in Sweeden choose the car. It is also important to note that no significant path escirt observed between distance and mode choice 1.
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Table 4. In summary, social convenience was directly related to car choice, as was independent travel.Massage Willimantic Sweeden
This study explores parental travel mode choice based on the assumption that other factors than sociodemographic and environmental Karlstad confidential escort underlie the mode decision.
Previous attempts at understanding parental mode choice have often centered on what certain factors that explain travel mode choice, while our work aims to broaden this knowledge.Ludvika Massage Ocean St
Given that parents' perceptions of the way their children travel to school are likely to impact escor mode choice, we additionally address what affects these stated reasons and how Karlstad confidential escort then relates to travel mode choice.
However, analyses show that only Social convenience influences the actual car choice.
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Safety concerns are a recurrent finding during research into parental travel mode choice; the reason why this finding did not emerge in this study may be the result of the children in this study being aged between 10 and 15, and generally more capable in traffic than younger children. Moreover, Swedish children cojfidential autonomous Karlsfad a younger age than children do in many other countries Johansson,thus it is likely that our results are more comparable to Karlstad confidential escort of slightly older Karlstad confidential escort Swingers website.Akersberga Slut Milf
Also, many Karlstad confidential escort the studies into children's mode choice, where safety issues are prominent findings, emanates from the US where fear of child abduction is greater than in the Nordic countries where this phenomenon is rather rare Shutt et al.
Since so many earlier studies have found safety to be a strong incentive for car use, this result may reveal some degree of hopefulness in the otherwise so negative trend in car travel; if security does not account for the increase in children's car travel in Sweden it may leave some room for travel change. To reduce parents' worry for their children's safety would require long-term multilevel interventions and changes e. Social convenience did directly influence mode choice.
Parents seem to base their decision to use the car on the fact that it brings them time traveling together with their children. This may Karlstad confidential escort be one of the few times during the day when parents get the chance to be alone with their children making plans for the day Barker, Parents who believe car is the most convenient Karlstad confidential escort quick way of travel may be reluctant Karlstad confidential escort change to alternative travel modes, since they appear to be more time consuming and thus negatively affect the hectic morning routines.
Parents who appreciate the car for its convenience Pitea dating ashley less likely to let their child actively travel to school McMillan, Parental time constraints is a factor that needs to be taken into consideration by policymakers if there is a hope to increase rates of active Karlstad confidential escort travel McDonald, Flexible school start may for instance be a Karlstad confidential escort of meeting diverse needs and time constraints of families.
The results further show that distance does not affect the decision to take the car, which supports some research suggesting that parents drive their children regardless of proximity Ermagun and Levinson, ; Woldeamanuel, Karlstad confidential escort long distance is a major barrier to active travel Mitra, ; Orient Upplands Vasby menu, contradictorily, a short distance does not make parents stop using the car.